Pest Control Mesquite TX manages plants, animals or fungi that cause damage. It includes threshold-based decision-making, monitoring, prevention, suppression, and eradication. Physical controls include traps and barriers that exclude or capture pests. They can be non-toxic.

Nematodes are microscopic worms that can be used to kill or suppress insect populations. They’re applied to the soil, where they eat pests from the inside.


pest control

A pesticide is a substance or mixture of substances attended for controlling, preventing or destroying any unwanted insects, mice or other animals, plants (weeds) or organisms such as fungi. The term also applies to any substance that modifies a plant’s growth (plant regulator), drops leaves prematurely (defoliant) or acts as a drying agent (desiccant).

Pesticides can be made from chemicals or from natural materials. They can be inorganic or organic, liquid or solid, and may be systemic or non-systemic. The most common types of pesticides include insecticides, herbicides and fungicides.

Insecticides are designed to attack an insect’s brain and nervous system. They tend to be the most acutely toxic. Herbicides like RoundUp and atrazine are more widely used, and their risks are more chronic (ongoing low-level exposure that can lead to cancer, Parkinson’s disease or infertility). Fungicides are intended to kill fungus, but often they affect healthy fungus as well. Many of these pesticides are systemic and move within a plant by absorbing through the xylem and moving downward through the phloem, or by transferring to other parts of the plant via root hairs.

When pesticides are used improperly, they can run off the field and contaminate surface waters, including streams, ponds, lakes and wells. Practices that reduce pesticide runoff include reducing application rates, using a spray mix additive to enhance retention on foliage and incorporating the pesticide into soil. In addition, tillage, contour planting, strip cropping, berming and reduced-tillage cropping systems can help minimize the movement of pesticides into water bodies. Visit CDC’s Environmental Public Health Tracking Network for information on exposures to and illnesses associated with pesticides. The Tracking Network includes data on over 118 commonly-used pesticides and their effects on human health, wildlife and the environment.


Insecticides are a vital part of any pest control plan. They kill or suppress insects that damage crops and other plants and can be applied in a variety of ways. Insecticides can enter surface waters as point sources from wastewater treatment plants that discharge during non-overflow conditions or as industrial or agricultural chemical spills and leaks. Insecticides can also be released accidentally or unintentionally in stormwater runoff from fields, golf courses and lawns, residential and commercial buildings, or other sites. Nonpoint sources of insecticides can include agricultural drainage ditches, agricultural ponds and irrigation returns.

The mode of action of insecticides varies, but most affect one or more of five biological systems in insects. Organophosphates increase cholinesterase inhibition, pyrethroids inhibit sodium channel activity in neuronal membranes, carbamates interfere with cell division and growth, and chitin synthesis inhibitors prevent insects from producing new cuticles to replace the damaged ones. Affected organisms may exhibit reduced condition, altered behavior or increased susceptibility to other stressors.

Organophosphates (OPs) are the most widely used insecticides, with pyrethroids and carbamates a close second and third. OPs kill insects by blocking the nerve impulses in the central nervous system. They are highly toxic to aquatic biota. OPs degrade slowly in water, and the degradation products can linger for long periods of time in a waterbody.

Carbamates, which are derived from carbamic acid, kill insects by mimicking the action of acetylcholine at neuromuscular junctions in insects. This causes an accumulation of acetylcholine, which leads to rapid twitching of voluntary muscles and eventually paralysis. Carbamates are less toxic to fish than OPs, and they have a lower degradation rate in water.

The newest class of insecticides, called the benzyphenyl ureas or CSIs, act by inhibiting the production of chitin, a major component in insects’ cuticles. CSIs are highly effective against fleas and termites, but they also exhibit ovicidal activity, killing the egg stage of the insect. They include lufenuron, program (Program(r)), diflubenzuron and hexaflumuron.

Pesticide Gas

The use of pesticide gas, or fumigants, can be a more efficient way to control insects than spraying them from the ground or air. Fumigants are pumped into soil or indoor areas as gases to suffocate and kill pests in the area. Fumigants are used to treat structures like homes (structural fumigation) and for treating the soil and products for import or export, including grains and produce.

Fumigants are typically sold as cylinders of pressurized liquids that become gas upon exposure to atmospheric moisture. They may be mixed with water or other chemicals to form a solution. The most common soil fumigants are 1,3-dichloropropene, chloropicrin, metam sodium and metam potassium. These are carcinogenic, irritating to the skin, eyes and lungs, and can cause reproductive harm. Exposure to these chemicals can also be harmful to people and animals who live or work in the area of application.

Other types of gas fumigants include hydrogen phosphide, which is available in solid form and releases when exposed to atmospheric moisture, and metal phosphide, which requires a chemical conversion to release its poisonous effect. These fumigants are less hazardous than other gases and are sometimes used in combination with other types of pesticides to improve the efficiency of treatment.

Whenever using pesticides, it is important to follow the directions on the product label. This will ensure that the pesticide is applied properly and safely. In addition, it is a good idea to wear protective clothing and equipment when working with these products. This includes a rain suit, long-sleeved shirt, pants and chemical-resistant gloves. Wearing a hat and unlined shoes will also protect the head, face and neck from direct contact with most pesticides.


Nematodes (nematodes that parasitize insect pests) are a biological alternative to chemical pest control. These microscopic roundworms are used around the world to manage many insect pests of vegetable, fruit and turf crops. They are particularly useful in managing difficult-to-control pests such as white grubs, Japanese beetle, and chafer beetles. Nematodes are effective in a wide variety of soil types and may be applied as a soil drench or foliar spray. Most commonly, the nematode Steinernema feltiae is used to control fungus gnat larvae and thrips pupae. Other nematodes, such as Heterorhabditis spp. and Steinernema carpocapsea, are used to control beetle populations that damage plants and turfgrass.

Nematodes are tolerant of drought, cold and heat, but they are most effective when the environment is relatively stable. Extremes of temperature or dry conditions can reduce their population or even kill them. Nematodes are also susceptible to predatory mites, fungi and other soil organisms that can reduce their population to ineffective levels. Thus, nematode populations should be monitored and reapplied as needed.

Research indicates that nematodes have few off-target effects, but their potential impact on insect pollinators requires further study. For example, one study found that a broad spectrum product containing Heterorhabditis spp. had a detrimental effect on bumble bee Bombus terrestris within the test period, but another product that was specific to weevil control did not.

Before ordering nematodes, ask suppliers for field tests supporting their recommended matching of insect target and nematode species or strain. Comparison-shopping is also advised, as prices vary widely. Ideally, nematode samples should be shipped in a cooler and delivered as soon as possible. A recent study found that nematode recovery was highest from hand-delivered samples, next best from next-day delivery and lowest for regular postal deliveries.

Biological Control

Biological control is the use of natural enemies to kill or suppress plant pests. These natural organisms can be in the form of beneficial insects, bacteria or fungi and can be used against insect pests, disease pathogens, weeds or viruses. Unlike chemical controls, which often target the symptoms rather than the causes of pests, these living organisms target the pest organisms themselves and usually have no impact on non-target plants.

Unlike conventional chemicals, which are derived from crude oil, biological agents are often sourced from the environment in which they thrive. This makes them a safer alternative to conventional sprays. However, these organisms are typically quite specific in their predation/parasite activity and require very careful identification to be effective. Moreover, they are subject to environmental conditions and cropping practices that must be carefully managed in order to maintain their population.

In addition, some biological control agents are largely host specific, making them even more condition sensitive. For this reason, it is vital to correctly identify the pest organisms down to the species level in order to ensure that the appropriate natural enemy species is selected for release. This requires experience and a thorough understanding of the pest, its ecology and its habitat.

The biological control process is divided into three main categories depending on whether resident organisms are utilized (conservation biological control), new organisms are introduced for permanent establishment (classical biological control) or the number of existing natural enemies is augmented through either inoculative or inundative releases. This latter practice, which is most often employed in greenhouse production and some fruit and vegetable fields, involves releasing mass-reared natural enemies such as the fly parasitoid Encarsia formosa or the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis against two-spotted spider mite and greenhouse whitefly.